Mesopotamia 9000 - 500 B.C
Early Farming Communities
||Beginning cultivation of
wild wheat and barley and domestication of dogs and sheep; inaugurating
of change from food gathering to food producing culture - Karim Shahir
in Zagros foothills.
||At Jarmo, oldest known
permanent settlement: crude mud houses, wheat grown from seed, herds of
goats, sheep, and pigs.
||Migration of northern
farmers settle in region from Babylon to Persian Gulf.
||Hassuna culture introduces
irrigation, fine pottery, permanent dwellings; dominates culture for
1000 years, develops tradefrom Persian Gulf to Mediterranean.
||Ubaidians develop first
divisions of labor, mud brick villages, first religious shrines. Small
temple at Eridu - earliest example of an offering table and niche for
||Semitic nomads from Syria
and Arabian peninsula invade southern Mesopotamia, intermingle with
Tepe Gawra built - setting style for later examples.
||Sumerians settle on banks of
||Temple at Eridu -
||Democratic assemblies give
way to kingships, evolve into hereditary monarchies.
||Kish - leading Sumerian
pictographs to keep administrative records.
3-D statues, e.g. Warka head.
White Temple - ziggurat traditional design.
Temple at Tell Uqair - mosaic decorations.
cuneiform land sales formal contracts.
Eridu and Kish - simple palaces.
"Standard of Ur" - war-peace plaque, religious statues, gold
and silver artifacts buried in tombs of Ur.
Sumerians of Abu Salabikh - first poetry.
||Gilgamesh, hero of
Sumerian legends, reigns as king of Erech
||Lugalannemudu of Abab
unites city states which vie for domination for 200 years.
||Ur-Nammu founds Ur's
3rd. dynasty; dedicates ziggurat at Ur moon-god Nanna, sets up early
||Gudea, Prince of Lagsh,
art and lit patron,magnificant statues produced in his honor.
||Elamites attack and
Babylonians and Assyrians
from Syrian desert conquer Sumer.
asccends Babylonian throne.
brings most of Mesopotamia under his control.
introduces law code.
invasion from Turkey ends Hammurabi's dynasty.
conquered by Hurrians from Anatolia.
of baked brick appears as dominant art form - Karaindash Temple.
assumes Babylonian throne
I expels Elamites.
Tiglath-Pileser I leads Assyria to new era of power.
introduced originally by Hittites, is used extensively in Assyria
for tools and weapons.
empire shattered by Aramaean and Zagros tribes. 150 Assyrian decline
halted by Adadnirari II.
II builds magnificent new capital, Calah, replacing old capital of
Assur, present day Nimrud.
II creates great empire extending from the Persian Gulf to the
borders of Egypt.
builds new capitol at Dur-Sharrukin
extends empire from Nile to Caucasus Mountains. Chaldeans and
Iranian Medes overrun Assyria - Neo-Babylonian empire.
son, Esaraddon, rebuilds Babylon.
II rules Neo-Babylonian empire. Razes Jerusalem, takes Jews into
captivity in Babylon.
"Tower of Babel," temple to Marduk
Great, Persian warrior and statesman, conquers Babylon.