5000 BC
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Bloodaxe's Realm     The Medieval World  

5000 BC
Earliest evidence of human culture in Mesopotamia
~4700 BC
Hassunah period: earliest pottery making culture
~4400 BC
Halaf period: pottery culture with knowledge of metal
~3900 BC
Ubaid period: first well-known culture from southern Mesopotamia; the Ubaids give the first evidence of temple and other sophisticated architecture
~3600 BC
Warka period: first civilization after the Ubaid in southern Mesopotamia; the Warka period marks the beginning of the Protoliterate period in Mesopotamia
~3400 BC
Gawra and Ninevite periods
2900 BC
Pre-dynastic Sumerians
2750 BC
First Sumerian dynasty of Ur
2340-2125 BC
Sargon I begins the Akkadian rule in Mesopotamia
2100-1800 BC
Third Sumerian dynasty of Ur
1800-1170 BC
Old Babylonian period
1728-1685 BC
Hammurabi, author of the first known Code of Laws
1600-1100 BC
Staggered periods of Hittite hegemony over Mesopotamia
1520-1170 BC
Periods of Kassite dominance
1200-612 BC
Assyrian period
714-681 BC
Reign of Sennacherib, whose conquest of Judah resulted in the first deportations of the Hebrews
668-626 BC
Reign of Ashurbanipal, the most energetic of the Assyrian conquerors
612 BC
Fall of Nineveh
612-539 BC
Neo-Babylonian Period
~650-600 BC
Zarathustra, the founder of Persian Zoroastrianism
605-565 BC
Reign of Nebuchadnezzar; his conquest of Judah and subsequent deportation of some Hebrew peoples mark the beginning of the Hebrew Exile
539 BC
Fall of Babylon and the beginning of Persian dominance in Mesopotamia
546 BC
Conquest of Lydia and the Greek cities of Asia Minor by Cyrus
521-486 BC
Reign of Darius I; the Persian empire at its fullest extent, from Macedon to Egypt, Palestine to India
499-494 BC
Rebellion of Greek cities against Persian rule
490-489 BC
Darius I invades Greece on a punitive expedition against Athens; known in Greek history as Persian Wars
480-479 BC
Invasion of Greece by Xerxes
479 BC
Defeat of Persian armies by the Greeks
~400 BC
Beginnings of Mithraism in Zoroastrianism
334-330 BC
Conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great
330 BC
Alexander enters Babylon; final fall of the Persians and Mesopotamian dominance over the region; beginning of Hellenistic period
250 BC
Founding of Manicheism, an offshoot of Mithraism and Zoroastrianism, by Mani, a priest of Ecbatana